While war is not the focus of the Victoria games, unlike HOI, it is by no means unrepresented. Even the world map will suffer from the battles taking place.
When conflict inevitably brews and wars break out, those effects are shown on your Hubs and surrounding terrain in many ways. When gearing up for war your troops will be determined by what you’ve researched and the Production Methods of your Barracks.
You can look at what troops you have in your Garrison at any time, but upon entering a battle the most advanced unit will be visible on the map where the battle takes place, facing off against the opponent's troops. Different effects will show depending on what weapons you’ve equipped your units with, so even a Mobile Artillery unit has different kinds of shots.
When a region has been ravaged by war and a lot of battles you will start to see the effect of that on the region where it has happened through Devastation. The dynamic Devastation affects a variety of parameters for the region, its trade, Pops, and Hubs.
It also visually shows, not just by tearing up the surrounding terrain but also by muddling rivers and burning buildings. The extent of this increases the more battles are fought in the same region.
Also, if you really need additional troops you can activate your conscription centers if you’ve got access to them, which forces a lot of people to sign up. This will be shown as well, through an effect on your Hubs where conscripts are being drafted.